Today I Learned

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Azure key discovery provides modulus and exponent

To verify a JWT coming from Azure, you must provide the ruby JWT package a public key. That public key must be OpenSSL::PKey::RSA value.

The Azure key discovery url provides this public key definition:

  "keys": [
      "kid": "X5eXk4xyojNFum1kl2Ytv8dlNP4-c57dO6QGTVBwaNk",
      "nbf": 1493763266,
      "use": "sig",
      "kty": "RSA",
      "e": "AQAB",
      "n": "tVKUtcx_n9rt5afY_2WFNvU6PlFMggCatsZ3l4RjKxH0jgdLq6CScb0P3ZGXYbPzXvmmLiWZizpb-h0qup5jznOvOr-Dhw9908584BSgC83YacjWNqEK3urxhyE2jWjwRm2N95WGgb5mzE5XmZIvkvyXnn7X8dvgFPF5QwIngGsDG8LyHuJWlaDhr_EPLMW4wHvH0zZCuRMARIJmmqiMy3VD4ftq4nS5s8vJL0pVSrkuNojtokp84AtkADCDU_BUhrc2sIgfnvZ03koCQRoZmWiHu86SuJZYkDFstVTVSR0hiXudFlfQ2rOhPlpObmku68lXw-7V-P7jwrQRFfQVXw"

First, I tried using the n value to create a ruby public key:

OpenSSL::PKey::RSAError: Neither PUB key nor PRIV key: nested asn1 error

So n is not the public key? WTF is n. Via the wikipedia page for RSA.

Alice transmits her public key (n, e) to Bob via a reliable, but not necessarily secret, route

n is the modulus. e is the exponent (in this case AQAB), but the ruby library requires a pem. We must convert the modulus and exponent to a pem. Luckily there is a gem for that:

gem install rsa-pem-from-mod-exp

Convert to a pem then to a pubkey:

require 'rsa_pem'

pem = RsaPem.from(key['n'], key['e'])

public_key =

And verify your token

decoded_token = JWT.decode token, public_key, true, { :algorithm => 'RS256' }
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