Today I Learned

A Hashrocket project

Pattern matching structs (why order is important)

When pattern matching structs with maps, many people don’t consider the consequences of order.

Say we have a user:

defmodule User do; defstruct [:name, :age] end

This will match just fine:

iex()> %{name: nil, age: nil} = %User{}
%User{age: nil, name: nil}

While the reverse will not:

iex()> %User{} = %{name: nil, age: nil}
Bug Bug ..!!** (MatchError) no match of right hand side value: %{age: nil, name: nil}

If you care to know why:

When pattern matching maps, the right side value must contain all the keys. In our example above, it appears they do:

iex()> inspect(%User{})
"%User{age: nil, name: nil}"

But looks can be deceiving:

iex()> inspect(%User{}, structs: false)
"%{__struct__: User, age: nil, name: nil}"

With our newfound knowledge, lets try again:

iex()> %User{} = %{name: nil, age: nil, __struct__: User}
%User{age: nil, name: nil}

🎉

Looking for help? Elixir is quickly gaining momentum for web applications that need concurrency, performance, and the ability to connect to many different clients. The developers at Hashrocket are learning along with the rest of the development community that Elixir and Phoenix are viable Rails alternatives for the right application. Check out the source code for Today I Learned, written in Elixir, and contact us if you need help with your Elixir project.